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Energy and Environment Management in Iron & Steel sector
Environment Management : Iron & steel industry in India are covered under the Environment Protection Act (EPA) as well as Environment Protection Rules & Regulations enacted & published by Ministry of Environment & Forest (MoEF). At the beginning, the entrepreneurs are required to obtain statutory clearances from the Union/State Governments required under the EPA for setting up of any new iron & steel plants or its substantial expansion. Further, the steel companies are required to install specified pollution control equipments/facilities and also operate well within the prescribed Standards/Norms in respect of air, water and noise pollutions as also solid waste generation & utilization. These are monitored by Central/State Pollution Control Boards. MOS helps & facilitates formulation/amendment of Norms and standards.
Energy Management: Energy consumption in most of the integrated steel plants in India is generally high at 6-6.5 Giga Calorie per tonne of crude steel as compared to 4.5-5.5 in steel plants abroad. The higher rate of energy consumption is mainly due to obsolete technologies including problems in retrofitting modern technologies in old plants, old shop floor & operating practices, poor quality of raw material viz. high ash coal/coke, high alumina iron ore etc. The energy consumption in steel plants is however, gradually reducing because of technological upgradation, utilisation of waste heats, use of better quality inputs, etc.
Steps/ Initiatives taken by the Government/ industry:
Ministry of Environment & Forests being the nodal Ministry, has evolved statutory norms/ standards for environment management & pollution control in all sectors of economy including Iron & Steel. The compliance of these standards is monitored by Central Pollution Control Boards and State Pollution Control Boards/ Committees. Ministry of Steel co-ordinates with MoEF and CPCB in connection with environment matters relating to iron and steel industry in India. Ministry of Steel is also associated in several Committees of MoEF/CPCB for formulation of environmental standards and also monitoring compliance of some of the standards like CREP Action Points, utilization of solid waste etc. Besides playing active role in formulation of the standards for the sector, MOS has been reviewing the performance of the PSU steel plants inter-alia including environmental performance. Further, MOS also draws attention of CPCB/NTF/SPCBs on environment issues from time to time.
Energy & Environment conservation is directly related to the technologies adopted by the iron & steel plants. While steel plants are themselves addressing the energy & environment issues in the plants through technological upgradation/ modernisation, and/or diffusion of energy efficient & environment friendly technologies in the plants, Government is facilitating improvement in the energy & environment scenario in the sector iron & steel sector through various forums/ mechanism, details of which are given below:
i)Charter on Corporate Responsibility for Environment Protection (CREP): This is an initiative of Ministry of Environment & Forests/ Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) in association with Ministry of Steel and the main/ major steel plants to reduce environment pollution, water consumption, energy consumption, solid waste & hazardous waste management etc as per mutually agreed targets with the purpose to go beyond the compliance of regulatory norms for prevention & control of pollution through various measures including waste minimization, in-plant process control & adoption of clean technologies. The implementation is being monitored by a National Task Force in CPCB. Ministry of Steel is co-ordinating with MoEF & CPCB on matters on Corporate Responsibility on Environment Protection (CREP) and National Task Force for energy, environment and waste management in steel plant and Formulation/implementation of Environment Standards/Guidelines in iron & steel sector. While most of the action points are being complied with by the steel plants, one of area of concern is the no achievement of 100% utilization/recycling of steel making slag for which MOS in consultation with the steel plants and MoEF is finding ways and means.
ii) UNDP-AUSAID-MOS Steel Project: UNDP & Ministry of Steel implemented an Energy Efficiency Improvement project namely UNDP-GEF Steel Project with financial assistance Global Environment Fund (GEF) & Ministry of Steel to support energy efficiency programmes in re-rolling mills in the country. The relevant energy efficient technologies have already been implemented in 34 Model Units. These technologies have been replicated in many other units in the country. Encouraged by the success of the project, UNDP, Government of Australia and Ministry of Steel have launched another project for Energy Efficiency Improvement in the Secondary Steel Sector including the Re-rolling Sector. Under these project, Energy Efficient Technologies are being implemented in 300 Model Units.
iii) NEDO Model Projects: Government of Japan through Ministry of Economy Trade & Industry provides funds i.e as Overseas Development Aid (ODA) under its Green Aid Plan (GAP) through Deptt of Economic Affairs in GOI for setting up of energy efficient, environment friendly projects known as Model Projects in various sectors including steel. These projects are routed through and managed by NEDO (New Energy & industrial technology Development Organisation), Japan. Ministry of Steel is coordinating the projects undertaken in the iron & steel sector. So far three projects have been commissioned, two at Tata Steel and one project at RINL. Two more projects are under consideration of the Government at present.
iv) Global Superior Energy Performance Partnership ( GSEP) is an initiative under the Clean Energy Ministerial. The Clean Energy Ministerial is a global forum to share best practices and promote policies and programs that encourage and facilitate the transition to a global clean energy economy. Government of India is a signatory to the Clean Energy Ministerial and hence a member of the GSEP.
GSEP is working to accelerate energy efficiency improvements throughout industrial facilities and large buildings and to significantly cut global energy use. Within GSEP, there are six working groups. India is represented by Ministry of Steel in the Steel Working Group.
The Objectives of the Steel Working Group are:
- To conserve energy in the steel sector by sharing information on improved technologies and practices and cooperating further to implement them.
- To provide a unique forum for public-private dialogue and cooperation.
- Setting relevant benchmarks and performance indices
- Promoting the development and dissemination of best-practice steel technologies
- Enhancing cooperation between government agencies, research bodies, and steel industry institutions
- The Steel Working Group will build upon the scope of work introduced under the erstwhile Asia-Pacific Partnership - Steel Task Force.
Sofar three meetings of the GSEP-SWG have been held to share the latest development of energy management activities in iron and steel industry of each member country. The members also discussed future action plan and activities of GSEP SWG.
v) National Action Plan on Climate Change: This is a new initiative of the Government and the Hon. Prime Minister has setup an Institutional Mechanism to address the problem at the National level. Towards this objective, the Hon. Prime Minister has released the National Action Plan document in June, 2008. The National Action Plan Outlined 8 missions – one of them being National Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency (NMEEE). NMEEE operates under the Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE), a statutory body constituted under the Ministry of Power.
NMEEE is an integrated approach for climate change mitigation through energy efficiency measures. The Mission has commenced implementation from April 2011 under the flagship ‘Perform Achieve and Trade (PAT)’ initiative. PAT is a market based mechanism to enhance cost effectiveness in improvements in energy efficiency in energy intensive large industries and facilities, through certifications of energy savings that could be traded. Under the PAT scheme, Government has prescribed unit wise targets for reduction in energy consumption and the steel industry is pursuing action plans to meet these targets.Ministry of Steel (Technical Wing) is coordinating the matter with concerned Government Departments and agencies as well as industry.
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